Alexander Fraser Tytler

04Set11

Essay on the Principles of Translation

L’intero saggio, o manuale, dello scozzese Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee (1747-1813), può essere letto e scaricato in vari formati ed edizioni tramite Google BooksThe Internet Archive.
Qui leggete l’indice della seconda edizione del 1797.

CHAPTER I
Description of a good Translation—General Rules flowing from that description

CHAPTER II
First general rule: A translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work—Knowledge of the language of the original and acquaintance with the subject—Examples of imperfect transfusion of the sense of the original—What ought to be the conduct of a Translator where the sense is ambiguous

CHAPTER III
Whether it is allowable for a Translator to add to or retrench the ideas of the original—Examples of the use and abuse of this liberty

CHAPTER IV
Of the freedom allowed in poetical Translation—Progress of poetical Translation in England—B. Johnson, Holiday, May, Sandys, Fanshaw, Dryden, Roscommon’s Essay on Translated Verse—Pope’s Homer

CHAPTER V
Second general Rule: The style and manner of writing in a Translation should be of the same character with that of the Original—Translations of the Scriptures—Of Homer, &c.—A just Taste requisite for the discernment of the Characters of Style and Manner—Examples of failure in this particular; The grave exchanged for the formal; the elevated for the bombast; the lively for the petulant; the simple for the childish—Hobbes, L’Estrange, Echard, &c.

CHAPTER VI
Examples of a good Taste in poetical Translation—Bourne’s Translations from Mallet and from Prior—The Duke of Nirvernois, from Horace—Dr. Jortin, from Simonides—Imitation of the same by Archbishop of York—Mr. Webb, from Anthologia—Hughes, from Claudian—Fragments of the Greek Dramatists by Mr. Cumberland

CHAPTER VII
Limitation of the rule regarding Imitation of Style—This imitation must be regulated by the Genius of Languages—The Latin admits of a greater brevity of Expression than the English; as does the French—The Latin and Greek allow of greater Inversions than the English, and admit more freely of Ellipsis

CHAPTER VIII
Whether a Poem can be well Translate into prose?

CHAPTER IX
Third general Rule: A Translation should have all the ease of original composition—Extreme difficulty in the observance of this rule—Contrasted instances of success and failure—Of the necessity of sacrificing one rule to another

CHAPTER X
It is less difficult to attain the ease of original composition in poetical, than in Prose Translation—Lyric Poetry admits of the greatest liberty of Translation—Examples distinguishing Paraphrase from Translation, from Dryden, Lowth, Fontenelle, Prior, Anguillara, Hughes

CHAPTER XI
Of the Translation of Idiomatic Phrases—Examples from Cotton, Echard, Sterne—Injudicious use of Idioms in the Translation, which do not correspond with the age or country of the Original—Idiomatic Phrases sometimes incapable of Translation

CHAPTER XII
Difficulty of translating Don Quixote, from its Idiomatic Phraseology—Of the best Translations of that Romance—Comparison of the Translation by Motteux with that by Smollett

CHAPTER XIII
Other Characteristics of Composition which render Translation difficult—Antiquated Terms—New Terms—Verba Ardentia—Simplicity of Thought and Expression—In Prose—In Poetry—Naiveté in the latter—Chaulieu—Parnelle—La Fontaine—Series of Minute Distinctions marked by characteristic Terms—Strada—Florid Style, and vague expression—Pliny’s Natural History

CHAPTER XIV
Of Burlesque Translation—Travesty and Parody—Scarron’s Virgile Travesti—Another Species of Ludicrous Translation

CHAPTER XV
The genius of the Translator should be akin to that of the original author—The best Translators have shone in original composition of the same species with that which they have translated—of Voltaire’s Translations from Shakespeare—Of the peculiar character of the wit of Voltaire—His Translation from Hudibras—Excellent anonymous French Translation of Hudibras—Translation of Rabelais by Urquahart and Motteux

Appendix

Index



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